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Technical Key Points of Poultry Breeding in High Temperature Season

Views: 89324     Author: Phoenix     Publish Time: 2023-06-30      Origin: Phoenix Breeding Equipment

Recently, the highest temperature in many places in various countries is above 38°C, which will always exceed the upper limit of the optimum temperature for poultry breeding by 26°C, thus giving poultry, especially fast and large broiler chickens (such as AA chickens), meat ducks and high-yielding chickens under intensive feeding conditions. Laying hens, etc. bring significant heat stress effects.

In order to minimize the impact of high-temperature heat stress on poultry production, it is first hoped that the majority of farmers should be able to correctly understand the physiological performance and production hazards of poultry under heat stress, and then do a good job in corresponding feeding and management work.

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1. The impact of high temperature on poultry

1). Physiological manifestations of heat stress in poultry

Under high-temperature heat stress, due to underdeveloped sweat glands in the skin of poultry, it is difficult to dissipate heat, which accelerates respiration and heat dissipation. When the ambient temperature rises to 35°C, the respiration rate is further accelerated, showing a wheezing shape, and fanning the throat. The amount of CO2 and the increase of drinking water, thereby reducing the blood alkali storage; the excessive production of free radicals OH- and O-2 in the body can cause metabolic disorders in the body in various forms; the levels of K+, Na+, Ca2+, VC, etc. in the blood decline, the feces become thinner, and the loss of K+, Na+, Ca2+, etc. from the feces increases.

2). Production performance of poultry under heat stress

Chickens (ducks, geese) flocks show: decreased feed intake, increased feed-to-meat ratio and feed-to-egg ratio, decreased weight gain rate of broiler chickens (ducks, geese, etc.), decreased egg production rate, and significantly decreased eggshell quality, broken The egg rate increased significantly, and the breeding benefits decreased significantly.

2. Main points of poultry breeding technology under high temperature

1). Improve the feeding management system

chicken drinker cup

1.1 Poultry house management

In hot seasons, if there is no insulation layer on the roof, the insulation layer needs to be added, and a temporary grass mat can also be added to the roof; planting vines should be considered before the arrival of summer to reduce the heat absorption of the roof and walls. Strengthen the greening around the chicken house, plant deciduous trees to increase the shade area; plant lawns or pastures to prevent the land from being exposed.

Install water air conditioners: Poultry houses with abundant cold water (reservoirs, deep wells) can be installed with water air conditioners. The one-time investment is larger, but the saving on electricity costs is more obvious.

Overhaul the cooling system: check whether the wet curtain is in good condition, if it is blocked and damaged, it needs to be replaced in time; check whether the fan is running well, if the fan is dry, it needs to be lubricated, if it is covered with old dust, it needs to be cleaned, and it is necessary to ensure that the windshield can be completely Open it, and replace the damaged fan in time. Check whether the walls on both sides can be airtight, and if there is any air leakage, it should be blocked.

1.2 Feeding management

Reduce the stocking density: When the high temperature comes, it is appropriate to eliminate some low-yielding and weak poultry and reduce the density by 10%.

Enhance ventilation: For poultry houses with wet curtain cooling system, ensure that the wet curtain and fans are in good condition, and all fans should be turned on. Find a way to avoid the sun from directly shining on the cooling pad, and try to use underground cool water as water for the wet curtain. If there is no wet curtain cooling system, the ventilation should be increased according to the specific conditions of the poultry house, and all doors and windows should be opened. The meat and poultry house can be equipped with 1 industrial fan per 50-100 square meters.

Spray cooling: Open poultry houses can be sprayed with cold water in the house with a high-pressure sprayer. The finer the mist, the better. Pay attention to ventilation while spraying to avoid the double hazards of high temperature and high humidity.

Roof spraying: Use a high-pressure water gun to spray cool water on the roof, spraying once every 2 hours.

chicken house

Add ice cubes to drinking water: Add appropriate amount of ice cubes to water tanks and drinking fountains. Ice can be purchased from a local freezer. What needs to be reminded is that the water for ice making must meet the drinking standards for poultry.

Egg poultry add light for 0.5-1 hour when it is cool at midnight, so that the chickens can eat and drink water, which can make up for the lack of food during the day and try to stabilize the egg production rate.

Timely cleaning of feces: caged poultry should be cleaned of feces frequently to reduce the superimposed hazards caused by the heat production of feces fermentation and harmful gases in the poultry house.

2). Reduce heat stress in poultry through nutritional regulation

2.1 Add an appropriate amount of fat to replace some carbohydrates in the diet

When poultry eat the same amount of energy value feed, the metabolic heat (i.e. body heat gain HI) produced by eating fat in the body is lower than that of eating carbohydrates. Therefore, increasing the fat level of chicken diets in summer is not only beneficial Increase the energy concentration of the diet to make up for the reduced energy intake due to the decrease in feed intake, and also effectively reduce the heat stress burden aggravated by body heat, killing two birds with one stone. However, in actual production, care should be taken to keep the feed fresh, and the storage period should not be too long, so as to prevent the fatty acid from spoiling and affecting the use effect.

2.2 Increase dietary protein level and pay attention to amino acid balance

Due to the decrease in feed intake of chickens in summer, it is necessary to increase the nutrient concentration of the diet to ensure that the various nutrients they eat are not significantly affected. In addition to nitrogen-free extracts, protein is the second largest nutritional requirement in the diet, so it should be adjusted accordingly according to changes in feed intake. In order to reduce the body calorie burden caused by the degradation and utilization of protein in the body and improve its utilization rate, it is the best way to add essential amino acids (such as Lys, Met, etc.) according to the dietary amino acid surplus and deficiency to create an ideal protein pattern.

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2.3 Increase the level of trace elements and vitamins

Due to the decrease in feed intake, to ensure that the body’s intake of various micronutrients remains unchanged, its content in the diet must be increased appropriately; Excretion increases, such as Zn2+, Cu2+, Fe2+, Mn2+, Cr3+, I-, etc., so additional supplements should be made; during heat stress, the ability of animals to synthesize VC is reduced, and the ability to convert VD3 into active forms is also reduced. VC is Eggshell organic matrix (procollagen) synthesis and VD3 hydroxylation are necessary, so it is necessary to increase the dietary VC addition to 50-100 mg/kg. Studies have shown that after feeding VC-added feed, the abnormal metabolism of Na+, protein and corticosterone concentration in the plasma of heat-stressed livestock and poultry can be restored to a normal physiological state, and the mortality rate caused by heat stress (43°C) is reduced from 22%. down to 7.2%. In addition, under high temperature stress, the concentration of various internal and external oxidation factors in diets and animals increases, so additional supplementation of VE and trace element Se as antioxidants can reduce the impact of heat stress and improve chicken production. Performance has a significant impact. In addition, studies have found that adding riboflavin can significantly reduce the lipid peroxidation level in rats, and supplementing excess riboflavin is beneficial to reduce heat stress in animals.

2.4 Supplement electrolytes to maintain normal osmotic pressure

In summer, the excretion of Na+ and K+ from the chicken body increases, and the CO2 concentration in the plasma decreases due to wheezing, resulting in respiratory poisoning. Therefore, adding additional Na+ and K+ to the diet or drinking water and adding CO2 to the drinking water are beneficial to maintain electrolyte balance. Studies have shown that Na+ in chicken diets is 0.14% to 0.28%, and Cl- in 0.2% to 0.24% is the most beneficial to production, but it is difficult to make the balance of Na+ and Cl- in the feed within the above range by using only NaCl. Supplementing 0.1% to 0.5% NaHCO3 contributes to the above balance and increases alkali storage, thereby effectively alleviating heat stress; Indian scholars believe that when the ambient temperature rises from 25.7°C to 37.8°C, the K requirement should increase from 0.4% to 0.6%.

2.5 Add organic acid

The pathway of fumaric acid to form energy is shorter than that of glucose, and it can be used for the emergency synthesis of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) under heat stress, improving the body's resistance and enhancing the body's anti-stress ability. At the same time, fumaric acid has a sedative effect, inhibits the central nervous system, and makes muscles Activity is reduced, so it can be used as an anti-heat stress additive.

2.6 Adding pharmaceutical additives

Traditional Chinese medicine anti-stress additives are more and more valued by people because of their multi-faceted regulatory effects on animal physiology, natural nature, and small toxic and side effects. The results of the study concluded that the anti-heat stress additives formulated with herbal medicines such as ageratum, mint, honeysuckle, licorice, and Radix Radix, whether it is egg production rate, egg weight, feed conversion rate or various blood biochemical indicators, the experimental group is better than the control group. groups, some at extremely significant levels. It shows the effects of enhancing immunity, balancing yin and yang, removing dampness, helping digestion, etc., maintaining and enhancing the physiological functions of the body under heat stress. There are also studies that use Acanthopanax extractum to feed laying hens under high temperature and heat stress. Under the addition of 0.1%, the egg production rate is 10.2% higher than that of the control group, the feed-to-egg ratio is decreased by 9.2%, and the egg fertilization rate is increased by 17.58%. %,good results. It can be seen that it will become an important research topic to deeply tap the potential of natural herbal medicine resources in my country and develop anti-stress green additives.

2.7 Add organic chromium preparation

Dr. David from Texas A & M University in the United States believes that various animal stress responses, including heat stress due to high temperature, will cause or aggravate animal nutritional deficiencies. Conversely, nutritional deficiencies will generate new stress responses. If this chain of action is not interrupted, a vicious chain reaction will occur, which will seriously affect animal production and even cause death. The loss of several important trace elements such as Zn, Cu, Fe, and Mn increases in animals under stress, but this stress loss can be prevented or inhibited by supplementing organic chromium.

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